戴明博士(W. Edwards Deming)

1900年10月4日出生於美國(Sioux City, IA)。

1921年懷俄明大學(Univ. of Wyoming)畢業。

1925年取得科羅拉多大學數學與物理碩士。

1928年取得耶魯大學的物理博士學位。

 

戴明博士一開始是在美國本土教授統計方法,也就是透過統計方法來進行品質的檢驗。

他建立美國工業Standard Quality Control(標準品質控制)的基礎,同時他也證明統計方法可以廣泛地應用於商業界,例如人口抽樣。

而為了推廣統計品質管理,他也在GE公司開設課程,總計訓練出3萬多位學員。


1950年開始,戴明博士開始前往日本進行品質管理教育。

戴明博士記取了美國企業界的慘痛教訓(對於大量檢驗的信賴),因此他對於品質管理以及品質經營的概念重新改良,進而奠定了日本TQC(Total Quality Control)的基礎。

由於日本早期企業的創辦人或是經營者,很多人的品質管理都是師承於戴明博士,因此日本企業界便尊稱戴明博士為日本品質管理之父。


1980年6月24日美國(NBC)廣播公司播放『If Japan Can, Why Can't We? 日本能,我們(美國)能不能』,很多美國人在此時才驚訝地發現,原來推動日本企業品質管理如此成功的幕後推手,是一位美國人!

當然,戴明博士也因為這個節目而聲名大噪。

而在此之前,受惠於戴明博士的日本企業,將產品或服務推到市場上之後,一如戴明博士的預言,不出5年,果真陸續稱霸市場!

戴明博士.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

言簡意賅的Deming Cycle

PDCA一開始是由統計學的品管之父舒華特
(Walter A. Shewhart)所提出的,又稱舒華特循環(Shewhart Cycle )﹐舒華特循環原本的定義為 Plan-Do-Check-Action (計畫-執行-檢查-行動)。

當戴明博士將這個概念導入日本企業時,他修改為 Plan-Do-Study-Action (計畫-執行-研究-修正/反應),簡稱為PDSA。

由於剛才有提到,戴明博士在日本企業界的品質管理地位,造成很多人以為PDCA是戴明博士所創始的。

而第四代管理學以檢驗現況作為起點﹐又針對Deming Cycle有所改良。

其實,PDCA或PDSA,將做人做事的方法,濃縮成4個自我提醒的步驟,它的應用範圍不只限於品質改善,甚至一通客戶拜訪電話,一場活動的檢驗,都可以用
PDSA做為參考程序。


著名的14點管理原則(Deming's 14 Points)

戴明博士針對美國企業領導者以及各國企業家,推廣為期4天的品質管理課程,這也是後來全面品質管理(TQM)的基礎,也就是品質管理上著名的14點管理原則(Deming's 14 Points)

戴明的14點管理原則包含了幾個重要的理念,最重要的是企業對品質的持續改善,另外,14點管理原則裏也一再告訴企業領導者,組織效率不彰或品質不佳是因為系統與管理,而不是員工所造成的。

以下是戴明的14點管理原則,內容來源是戴明的著作《Out of the Crisis》─轉危為安,次序或用語因為10多年來戴明博士在不同場合強調不同的內容,可能跟市面上的版本有所差異。

 

1.Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service, with the aim to become competitive and stay in business, and to provide jobs.


2. Adopt the new philosophy. We are in a new economic age. Western management must awaken to the challenge, must learn their responsibilities, and take on leadership for change.

3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place.

4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize total cost. Move towards a single supplier for any one item, on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust.

5. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service, to improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly decrease costs.

6. Institute training on the job.

7. Institute leadership. The aim of supervision should be to help people and machines and gadgets to do a better job. Supervision of management is in need of overhaul, as well as supervision of production workers.

8. Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively for the company.

9. Break down barriers between departments. People in research, design, sales, and production must work as a team, to foresee problems of production and in use that may be encountered with the product or service.

10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity. Such exhortations only create adversarial relationships, as the bulk of the causes of low quality and low productivity belong to the system and thus lie beyond the power of the work force.

11. a. Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. Substitute leadership.


     b. Eliminate management by objective. Eliminate management by numbers, numerical goals. Substitute leadership.

12. a. Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of his right to pride of workmanship. The responsibility of supervisors must be changed from sheer numbers to quality.


    b. Remove barriers that rob people in management and in engineering of their right to pride of workmanship. This means, inter alia," abolishment of the annual or merit rating and of management by objective .

13. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement.

14. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. The transformation is everybody's job.

 

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